A dog who is NOT spayed is also called intact.
Spaying prevents the nuisance of heat periods.
- Heat periods can be messy and embarrassing. Your dog's genitals swell. She will have a bloody discharge, which can stain your carpets and furniture. She may spend a lot of time licking her private parts. She may flirt with other dogs (male or female), presenting her rump and encouraging other dogs to mount her. She may mount other dogs herself or hump pillows or stuffed toys. Even when Grandma is visiting...
- Heat periods require vigilance and confinement. A female in heat can be smelled from a long distance away and fences mean nothing to a lust-crazed male. You shouldn't leave her alone in the yard for a single minute. Indeed, you may have to stop walking her completely.
- Heat periods can upset your own plans. Vacations and trips may have to wait. Friends and relatives won't appreciate a visit when your dog is bleeding or will leave tempting scents in their yard. And leaving an unspayed female with a pet sitter or boarding kennel is risky.
Spaying prevents deadly infections of the uterus.
Nearly 1 in 4 intact females will develop an infection called pyometra. The uterus swells with toxic pus and the only cure is an emergency spay. The surgery is dangerous when a middle-aged or elderly dog is already sick from the infection.
Many beloved dogs die from pyometra, which can be completely prevented by spaying while your dog is still young and healthy.
Spaying offers partial protection against breast cancer.
If your dog is spayed before 2-1/2 years old, she is less likely to develop mammary tumors (about half are malignant).
Spaying prevents false pregnancy.
A few weeks after a heat period, some intact females act as though they're going to have pups. Their nipples produce milk and they become obsessed with stuffed toys as puppy substitutes. It sounds harmless, even amusing. But the hormonal changes associated with a false pregnancy can throw your dog's metabolism out of whack, causing health problems.
Spaying prevents real pregnancy.
Your dog can die trying to give birth, or shortly after birth from infections. Your beloved dog was happy and healthy, then suddenly she's gone, just because you wanted puppies. Imagine how terrible you would feel.
Also, dogs are put to sleep every day because there are not enough homes for them. Any puppies created by your female will take homes away from the poor dogs who are already here.
What if your female passed along genes for a health problem? A dog who is allowed to breed must first be tested and cleared of certain health problems known to be hereditary. Imagine a puppy living with a painful health problem because your female had that problem in her genes yet was allowed to breed. You would feel sad and guilty.
Finally, responsible breeding requires too much knowledge and expense. You need to learn about canine genetics and researching pedigrees. You need to pay veterinary costs, and if anything goes wrong during the pregnancy or birthing or with the puppies, vet costs go up really fast. Breeding is simply not worth it.
Possible disadvantages of spaying your female dog
Most of the following statistics come from a 10-year study at the University of California (Davis) Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The study was headed by Dr. Benjamin Hart and study results published in 2013.
Spaying doubles the risk of obesity.
Extra weight leads to debilitating joint disease, arthritis, heart disease, pancreatitis, and diabetes.
Spayed dogs become overweight when owners feed the same amount of food as before their dog was spayed. Spaying, you see, changes a dog's hormonal make-up and metabolism so she doesn't require as much food.
Monitor your dog's shape as you feed her. Keep adjusting the amount you feed so she stays on the slender side, and provide plenty of exercise. Then your spayed dog will not become fat.
Spaying increases the risk of a deadly cancer called hemangiosarcoma.
Apparently the reproductive hormones offer some protection against this cancer, because spayed females are twice as likely to develop hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and five times as likely to develop hemangiosarcoma of the heart, compared to unspayed females.
Hemangiosarcoma is much more common in certain breeds, especially the Afghan Hound, Belgian Shepherds, Bernese Mountain Dog, Bouvier des Flandres, Boston Terrier, Boxer, Bulldog, Doberman Pinscher, English Setter, Flat Coated Retriever, French Bulldog, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Labrador Retriever, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Rottweiler, Saluki, Scottish Terrier, Skye Terrier, and Vizsla.
Spaying triples the risk of hypothyroidism.
The loss of reproductive hormones appears to upset the endocrine system. This can result in low thyroid levels, which causes weight gain and lethargy. Fortunately it can be treated with a daily thyroid supplement for the rest of your dog's life.
Spaying is major surgery requiring general anesthesia.
Studies show that about 20% of spay procedures have at least one complication, such as a bad reaction to the anesthesia, infection, abscess, etc. But most of these complications are minor. Less than 5% are serious, and the death rate is less than 1%.
If done at the wrong age, spaying increases the risk of hip dysplasia, torn ligaments, bone cancer, and urinary incontinence.
The reproductive hormones help your dog's bones, joints, and internal organs to develop properly. If you remove those reproductive hormones too early, they don't have enough time to complete their valuable work.
- Early spaying causes the leg bones to grow unevenly. This leaves your dog more vulnerable to hip dysplasia and torn ligaments.
- Early spaying triples the risk of bone cancer, a deadly cancer that mostly occurs in large and giant dogs.
- Early spaying causes urinary incontinence in up to 20% of spayed females. If your dog is spayed before her bladder is fully developed, weak bladder muscles may start to leak in middle age. This is stressful for both you and your dog, who is understandably upset at "having accidents" when she can't understand why. Lifelong supplementation with estrogen will be required and getting the medication properly balanced can be tricky.
- Early spaying can affect the size and shape of a female's "private parts." The vulva of a dog spayed early remains small and may even be recessed inside her body instead of protruding as it should. An abnormal vulva has folds of skin that can trap bacteria, leading to recurrent infections.
- Ask your Vet questions and get scientific responses not just what they think. Do your research!